Dr. Craig Formby

Distinguished Graduate Research Professor Emeritus


  • PhD, Communicative Sciences, Washington University, Central Institute for the Deaf, St. Louis, Missouri, May 1982
  • NIH Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Deparment of Neurology, University of Alabama in Birmingham, September 1981–August 1982
  • Resident in Audiology, Department of Biocommunication, University of Alabama in Birmingham, September 1981–August 1982
  • MA, Audiology, Memphis State Univeristy, Memphis Speech and Hearing Center, Memphis, Tennessee, August 1977
  • BA, Speech Communication, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, June 1974

Research Areas

  • Treatment of tinnitus
  • Studies of hearing and balance


Dr. Craig Formby’s research tests dizziness, caused by inner ear problems, via a rotating chair. Such research helps pinpoint the root cause of balance problems. This video shows Dr. Formby’s work with this highly specialized chair.

Office Hours

By appointment

Selected Publications

Formby, C., Hawley, M., Sherlock, L., Gold, S., Segar, A., Gmitter, C. Cannavo, J. (2008). Intervention for restricted dynamic range and reduced sound tolerance. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, The Acoustical Society of America, Acoustics ’08 Paris, 2008.

Formby, C., Cicci, R., Block, K.L., Wisman, L. and Hawley, M.L. (2007). Temporal masking in adolescents with language learning impairments, in revision.

Formby, C. and Keaser, M.L. (2007). Secondary treatment benefits achieved by hearing-impaired tinnitus patients using aided environmental sound therapy for TRT: Comparisons with matched groups of tinnitus patients using noise generators for sound therapy. Seminars in Hearing, 28(4), 227-260.

Hawley, M.L., Keaser, M.L. and Formby, C. (2007). Predicting hyperacusis in tinnitus patients. Seminars in Hearing, 28(4), 261-275.

Formby, C., Gold, S.L., Keaser, M.L., Block, K.L. and Hawley, M.L. (2007). Secondary benefits from Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT): Clinically significant increases in loudness discomfort level and in the auditory dynamic range. Seminars in Hearing, 28(4), 276-294.

Bartnik, G., Hawley, M.L., Rogowski, M., Raj-Koziak, D., Fabijanska, A. and Formby, C. (2007).Distortion product otoacoustic emission levels and input/output growth functions in normal-hearing individuals with tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. Seminars in Hearing, 28(4), 303-318.

Formby, C., Sherlock, L.P., Gold, S.L. and Hawley, M.L. (2007). Adaptive recalibration of chronic auditory gain. Seminars in Hearing, 28(4), 295-302.

Zhang, T. and Formby, C. (2007). Effects of cueing in auditory temporal masking. J. Speech, Lang., Hear. Res., 50: 564-575.

Sherlock, L.P., and Formby, C. (2005) Estimates of loudness, loudness discomfort, and the auditory dynamic range: Normative estimates, comparison of procedures, and test-retest reliability. J. Amer. Acad. Audiol., 16: 85-100.

Formby, C., and Gagne, J.P. (2004) Ira Hirsh as a pioneer in audiology: His contributions to the clinical measurement of hearing and hearing impairment. Seminars in Hearing, 25, 281-287.

Formby, C., Sherlock, L.P., and Gold, S.L. (2003). Adaptive plasticity of loudness induced by chronic attenuation and enhancement of the acoustic background. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 114, 55-58.

Formby, C. (2003). Obituary for Robert C. Bilger, Former Editor of JSLHR and Chair, ASHA Publication Board. J. Speech, Lang., Hear, Res., 46, 1028.

Emery, B.E., Dixit, R., Formby, C.C., Biedlingmaier, J.F. (2003). The resistance of maxillofacial reconstruction plates to biofilm formation in vitro. Laryngoscope,113, 1977-1982.

Formby, C., Heinz, M.G., and Aleksandrovsky, I.V. (2002). Temporal integration of sinusoidal increments in the absence of absolute energy cue. J. Speech, Lang., Hear. Res., 45, 1285-1296.

Formby, C., Rutledge, J.C., and Sherlock, L.P. (2002). Exponential processes in human auditory excitation and adaptation. Hearing Res., 164, 215-230.

Formby, C., Sherlock, L.P., and Gold, S.L. (2002). An experimental study to test the concept of adaptive recalibration of chronic auditory gain: interim findings. Proceedings of the 7th International Tinnitus Seminar, R. Patuzzi (Ed.). Crawley, W.A. (2002), Australia, Univ. Western Australia, pp.165-169.

Gold, S.L., Formby, C., Frederick, E.A. and Suter, C. (2002). Incremental shifts in loudness discomfort level among tinnitus patients with and without hyperacusis. Proceedings of the 7th International Tinnitus Seminar, R. Patuzzi (Ed.). Crawley, W.A., Australia, Univ. Western Australia, pp. 170-172.

Formby, C., and Gold, S.L. (2002). Modification of loudness discomfort level: Evidence for adaptive chronic auditory gain and its clinical relevance. Seminars in Hearing, 23(1), 21-34.

Gold, S.L., Formby, C., and Gray, W.C. (2000). Celebrating a decade of evaluation and treatment: The University of Maryland Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Center. Am. J. Audiol., 9, 69-74.

Formby, C., Sherlock, L.P., and Ferguson, S.H. (2000). Enhancement of the edges of temporal masking functions by complex patterns of overshoot and undershoot, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 107, 2169-2187.

Formby, C. and Robinson, D.A.(2000). Measurement of vestibular ocular reflex time constants with a caloric step stimulus. J. Vest. Res., 10, 25-39.

Gold, S., Frederick, E., and Formby, C. (1999). Shifts in dynamic range for hyperacusis patients receiving Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT). Proceedings of the 6th International Tinnitus Seminar, (Cambridge U.K.), J. Hazell (Ed.), London: The Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Centre, pp. 297-301.

Heinz, M.G. and Formby, C. (1999). Detection of time- and band-limited increments and decrements in a random-level noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 106, 313-326.

Formby, C., Rutledge, J.C. and Sherlock, L.P. (1999). A model of the component processes in human auditory adaptation. Proceedings of the International Békésy Centenary Conference, Budapest, Hungary: Hungarian National Academy of Sciences, pp. 59-63.

Formby, C., Sherlock, L.P., and Li, S. (1998). Temporal gap detection measured with multiple sinusoidal markers: Effects of marker number, frequency, and temporal position. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 104, 984-998.

Formby, C., Gerber, M.J., Sherlock, L.P., and Magder, L.S. (1998). Evidence for an across-frequency two-channel process in asymptotic monaural temporal gap detection. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 103, 3554-3560.

Formby, C., Rutledge, J.C., Heinz, M.G., Sherlock, L.P., and Aleksandrovsky, I.V. (1998). A descriptive model of under- and over-shoot patterns in the temporal masking function of a narrowband noise.ICA/ASA Proceedings, Woodbury, NY: Acoustical Society of America, 1, 563-564.

Formby, C., Heinz, M.G., and Aleksandrovsky, I.V. (1998). Detection of an increment in a single-frequency component of a noise background as a function of increment frequency and duration. ICA/ASA Proceedings, P.K. Kuhl and L.A. Crum (Eds.), Woodbury, NY: Acoustical Society of America, 1, 565-566.

Formby, C. and Forrest, T.G. (1997). Measurement and modeling of modulation detection for normal and hearing-impaired listeners. Modeling Sensorineural Hearing Loss. W. Jesteadt (Ed.), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Inc., pp. 359-372.

Forrest, T.G., Formby, C., and Sherlock, L.P. (1997). Measurement and modeling of temporal gap detection for normal and Meniere listeners. Modeling Sensorineural Hearing Loss. W. Jesteadt (Ed.), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Inc., pp. 373-386.

Formby, C., Sherlock, L.P., and Li, S. (1996). Auditory temporal acuity and the perceptual organization of complex sound. Auditory Basis of Speech Perception. W. Ainsworth and S. Greenberg (Eds.), Keele University, UK, pp. 137-140.

Formby, C., Sherlock, L.P., and Green, D.M. (1996). Evaluation of a maximum likelihood procedure for measuring pure-tone thresholds under computer control. J. Amer. Acad. Audiol., 7, 125-129.

Formby, C., Childers, D.G., and Lalwani, A.L (1996). Labeling and discrimination of a synthetic fricative continuum in noise: A study of absolute duration and relative onset time cues. J. Speech Hearing Res., 39, 4-18.

Formby, C., Sherlock, L.P., and Forrest, T.G. (1996). An asymmetric roex filter model for describing detection of silent temporal gaps in sinusoidal markers. Aud. Neurosc., 3, 1-20.

Forrest, T.G. and Formby C.C. (1996). Temporal gap detection thresholds in sinusoidal markers simulated with a single-channel envelope detector model. Aud. Neurosc., 3, 21-34.

Heinz, M.G., Goldstein, Jr., M.H., and Formby, C.C. (1996). Temporal gap detection thresholds in sinusoidal markers simulated with a multi-channel, multi-resolution model of the auditory periphery. Aud. Neurosc., 3, 35-56.

Formby, C., Burton, J.T., and Kricos, P.B. (1996). Psychophysical evidence in support of the Auditory Numbers Test. The Volta Review, 96, 151-166.

Formby, C., Heinz, M.G., Luna, C.E., and Shaheen, M.K. (1994). Masked detection thresholds and temporal integration for noise band signals. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 96, 102-114.

Formby, C., Barker, C., Abbey, H., and Raney, J.J. (1993). Detection of silent temporal gaps between narrowband noise markers having second-formant like properties of voiceless stop/vowel combinations. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 93, 1023-1027.

Formby, C., Carter, R.L., Hansen, C.A., and Kuntz, L.A. (1992). Measurement, analysis, and modeling of the caloric response: 1. A descriptive mathematical model of the caloric response over time. Acta Otolaryngologica, Supplement 498, 1-18.

Formby, C., Kuntz, L.A., Rivera Taylor, I.M., Rivera Mraz, N., Weesner, D.R., Butler-Young, N.E., and Ahlers, A. (1992). Measurement, analysis, and modeling of the caloric response: 2. Evaluation of mental alerting tasks for measurement of caloric-induced nystagmus. Acta Otolaryngologica, Supplement 498, 19-29.

Formby, C., Morgan, L.N., Forrest, T.G., and Raney, J.J. (1992). The role of frequency selectivity in measures of auditory and vibrotactile temporal resolution. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 91, 293-305.

Formby, C. (1991). Response to Moore. J. Speech Hearing Res., 34, 1440-1441.

Formby, C. and Forrest, T.G. (1991). Detection of silent temporal gaps in sinusoidal markers. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 89, 830-837.

Formby, C. (1990). Simple triangular approximations of auditory filter shapes. J. Speech Hearing Res. 33, 530-539.

Formby, C., Albritton, B., and Rivera, I. (1989). Preliminary evaluation of a Weibull function for fitting slow-component eye velocity over the time course of caloric-induced nystagmus. J. Speech Hearing Res., 32, 681-687.

Formby, C. and Muir, K. (1989). Effects of randomizing signal level and duration on temporal gap detection. Audiology, 28, 250-257.

Formby, C., Thomas, R.G., and Halsey, Jr., J.H. (1989). Regional cerebral blood flow for singers and nonsingers while speaking, singing, and humming a rote passage. Brain and Language, 36, 690-698.

Formby, C. and Muir, K. (1988). Modulation and gap detection for broadband and filtered noise signals.J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 84, 545-550.

Formby, C., Hixson-Robles, C., and Singleton, G.T. (1988). Correlations between hearing thresholds and caloric responses among a heterogeneous sample of dizzy patients. J. Speech Hearing Dis., 53, 65-70.

Formby, C., Phillips, D.E. and Thomas, R.G. (1987). Hearing loss among stroke patients. Ear and Hearing, 8, 326-332.

Formby, C., Thomas, R.G., Brown, W.S., and Halsey, Jr., J.H. (1987). The effects of continuous phonation on 133Xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow). Brain and Language, 31, 346-363.

Formby, C. (1987). Modulation threshold functions for chronically impaired Meniere patients. Audiology, 26, 89-102.

Formby, C. (1987). Perception of the temporal envelope of amplitude-modulated noise by hearing-impaired listeners. In W. Yost and C. Watson (Eds.) Complex Sound Perception. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, Inc., pp. 136-146.

Formby, C. (1986). Frequency and rate discrimination by Meniere patients. O.R.L. Digest, 8, 3-4.

Formby, C. (1986). Modulation detection by patients with eighth-nerve tumors. J. Speech Hearing Res., 24, 413-419.

Formby, C. (1986). Frequency and rate discrimination by Meniere patients. Audiology, 25, 10-18.

Baldwin, R.L. and Formby, C. (1986). Changes in caloric nystagmus induced by vasodilating drugs.Laryngoscope, 96, 420-429.

Lauter, J.L., Herscovitch, P., Formby, C., and Raichle, M.E. (1985). Tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex revealed by positron emission tomography. Hearing Res., 20, 199-205.

Formby, C. (1985). Differential sensitivity to tonal frequency and to the rate of modulation of broad-band noise by normally hearing listeners. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 78, 70-77.

Davis, H., Hirsh, S.K., Popelka, G.R., and Formby, C. (1984). Frequency selectivity and thresholds of brief stimuli suitable for electric response audiometry. Audiology, 23, 59-74.

Lauter, J.L., Formby, C., Fox, P., Herscovitch, P., and Raichle, M.E. (1983). Tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex as revealed by regional changes in cerebral blood flow. J. Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 3, Suppl. 1, S248-249.

Formby, C. and Monsen, R.B. (1982). Long-term average speech spectra for normal and hearing-impaired adolescents. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 71, 196-202.

Zurek, P.M. and Formby, C. (1981). Reply to Dobbins and Hannley. J. Speech Hearing Res., 24, 624.

Formby, C. and Gjerdingen, D.B. (1981). Some systematic observations on monaural diplacusis. Audiology, 20, 219-233.

Zurek, P.M. and Formby, C. (1981). Frequency-discrimination ability of hearing-impaired listeners. J.Speech Hearing Res., 24, 108-112.

Formby, C. and Gjerdingen, D.B. (1980). Pure-tone masking of tinnitus. Audiology, 19, 519-535.

Formby, C. and Sachs, R.M. (1980). Psychophysical tuning curves for combination tones 2f1-f2 and f2-f1. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 67, 1754-1758.

Studebaker, G.A., Cox, R.M., and Formby, C. (1977). The effect of environment on the directional performance of head-worn aids. In G.A. Studebaker and I. Hochberg (Eds.) Acoustical Factors Affecting Hearing Aid Performance and Measurement. Baltimore: University Park Press.


Formby C. (2007). Hyperacusis and Related Sound Tolerance Complaints: Differential Diagnosis, Treatment Effects, and Models. Seminars in Hearing, 28(4).